at night, air temperatures near earth’s surface tend to be lowest when the sky is

Notice how the highest albedo values are in regions where Earth is mostly covered by snow and ice, or clouds, or both. The lowest albedo values occur in forest-covered landscapes or open ocean.

Which of these Earth’s surfaces has the lowest albedo?

The smallest albedos occur over those tropical ocean regions where clouds are sparsely distributed. The ocean surface has an intrinsically low albedo so that when clouds and sea ice are absent, the Earth’s albedo over ocean areas is only 8–10%.

Which of the following surfaces has the highest albedo?

Snow and ice have the highest albedos of any parts of Earth’s surface: Some parts of Antarctica reflect up to 90% of incoming solar radiation.

What percentage of incident energy is absorbed by the atmosphere?

About 23% of incoming energy is absorbed in the atmosphere by atmospheric gases, dust, and other particles. The remaining 48% is absorbed at the surface.

What is the rate of solar energy reaching the earth surface?

2. What is the rate of solar energy reaching the earth surface? Explanation: The solar energy reaching the surface of the earth is about 1016W whereas the worldwide power demand is 1013W. That means solar energy gives us 1000 times more energy than our requirement.

What is Earth’s average albedo quizlet?

The average albedo of the Earth is 0.3, meaning 30% of the sunlight that strikes Earth is reflected back into space.

When water evaporates from a surface which of the following occur?

The evaporation of water happens over a wide range of temperatures. At any temperature, the molecules of a substance are moving at a variety of speeds (kinetic energies). Evaporation happens when the molecules at the surface of a liquid move fast enough to break away from other molecules in the liquid and become a gas.

How do temperature ranges in coastal cities compare with cities in continental interiors?

How do temperature ranges in coastal cities compare with interior cities? Cities by the coast are warmer in summer and warmer in winter than interior cities. Interior cities are warmer in summer and warmer in winter than coastal cities.

What absorbs infrared heat?

Glass, Plexiglas, wood, brick, stone, asphalt and paper all absorb IR radiation. While regular silver-backed mirrors reflect visible light waves, allowing you to see your reflection, they absorb infrared radiation. Gold, manganese and copper also absorb IR radiation well.

How are lower energy infrared photons absorbed?

Infrared radiation is absorbed and emitted by the rotations and vibrations of chemically bonded atoms or groups of atoms and thus by many kinds of materials. For instance, window glass that is transparent to visible light absorbs infrared radiation by the vibration of its constituent atoms.

How does co2 heat the earth?

It absorbs and re-emits infrared radiation, and thus makes the planet warmer. … As carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases heat up the planet, more water evaporates into the atmosphere, which in turn raises the temperature further.

How does albedo affect temperature?

The lower the albedo, the more radiation from the Sun that gets absorbed by the planet, and temperatures will rise. If the albedo is higher, and the Earth is more reflective, more of the radiation is returned to space, and the planet cools. An example of this albedo effect is the snow temperature feedback.

Is the earth’s albedo decreasing?

Over the past century, there has been a net warming, which has caused Earth’s average temperature to increase by about 0.8°C. An increase in global temperature causes snow and ice to melt, which decreases the extent to which they cover the surface, which then decreases Earth’s albedo.

Which has the highest and which has the lowest albedo value?

Fresh snow has the largest reflection and hence highest albedo, whereas black soil has the lowest albedo since it absorbs maximum amount of solar radiation.

How is the lower atmosphere warmed from the surface upward?

How is the lower atmosphere warmed from the surface upward? The earth absorbs radiation given off by the sun. … As the infrared radiation travels up through the air, gases in the lower atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor, trap the energy in the lower atmosphere, warming it.

What is albedo of the surface?

The surface albedo quantifies the fraction of the sunlight reflected by the surface of the Earth. … The hemispherical albedo or bi-hemispherical reflectance (also called white-sky albedo) is the integration of the directional albedo over the illumination hemisphere.

What determines the albedo of a surface?

Surface albedo is defined as the ratio of radiosity Je to the irradiance Ee (flux per unit area) received by a surface. The proportion reflected is not only determined by properties of the surface itself, but also by the spectral and angular distribution of solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface.

When an area of the earth’s surface becomes very hot the air above it?

When an area of the earth’s surface becomes very hot, the air above it. warms, expands, and rises. the rising air cools and loses its ability to hold water vapor. descending, warming air.

In which Earth surface the albedo effect is highest?

Ice- and snow-covered areas have high albedo, and an ice-covered Arctic reflects solar radiation which otherwise would be absorbed by the oceans and cause the Earth’s surface to heat up.

What are two surfaces with high albedo?

A substance with a high albedo reflects a significant amount of incoming radiation. Two examples include clouds and surface snow cover. This acts to keep the earth’s surface cooler than it otherwise would have been. A substance with a low albedo reflects very little incoming radiation.

How much energy is absorbed by the atmosphere?

In total approximately 70% of incoming radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface while around 30% is reflected back to space and does not heat the surface. The Earth radiates energy at wavelengths much longer than the Sun because it is colder.

How does the Earth absorb heat energy from the Sun?

Most of the electromagnetic radiation that comes to the earth from the sun is invisible. Only a small portion comes as visible light. … Most of the solar radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and much of what reaches the earth’s surface is radiated back into the atmosphere to become heat energy.

How much percent of energy is absorbed from the Sun to Earth Mcq?

How much percent of energy is absorbs from the Sun to Earth? Explanation: When the Earth receives energy from the Sun, the surface of the Earth only absorbs 50% of it. The radiation absorbed by the atmosphere is radiated again in all direction some radiated towards space and radiated back to the surface of the Earth.

Which part of the Earth receives the least solar energy?

Earth receives different amounts of solar energy at different latitudes, with the most at the equator and the least at the poles.

How does solar energy affect Earth’s atmosphere and surfaces?

The radiation warms the Earth’s surface, and the surface radiates some of the energy back out in the form of infrared waves. As they rise through the atmosphere, they are intercepted by greenhouse gases, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gases trap the heat that reflects back up into the atmosphere.

How does solar radiation affect temperature?



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