how will minerals orient when a rock is put under shear stress?

Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism. It is the finest grained foliated metamorphic rock.

Which two minerals are most common in detrital sedimentary rocks?

Clay minerals and quartz are the primary minerals found in detrital sedimentary rocks. Clays are the product of weathering of silicate minerals, mostly feldspars.

When metamorphic rocks form what main factors agents dictate the rock that will form?

What determines what kind of metamorphic rock we will end up with-what factors are important? The metamorphic rock is dependent on its protolith (parent rock), the degree of metamorphism (the time over which a rock is being metamorphosed) and the specific ratios of heat/pressure/fluids that the rock is exposed to. 2.

How do index minerals help geologists?

Geologists look at the minerals in rocks to determine how much heat and pressure — and thus how much metamorphosis — the rock has undergone. Certain minerals, called “index minerals,” only appear in certain rocks at certain pressures, Thus, index minerals can tell geologists how much the rock has metamorphosed.

Which of the following factors describes the conditions at a zone where contact metamorphism is occurring?

Which of the following best describes the conditions of contact metamorphism? Pressures are fairly low, the rock may be in the upper part of the crust, and heat is supplied from a nearby magma body such as a pluton dike, or sill.

How can a rock change during metamorphism quizlet?

How does the mineral composition of rock change during metamorphism? hot magma inside the earth heats up the rocks and causes them to produce new minerals. The closer to the magma the rock is the more it changes. Or the rocks change when pressure builds up due to shifts in the Earth’s crust.

What kind of force will create foliation in metamorphic rocks?

Foliation normally forms when pressure was exerted on a rock from one direction. If pressure is exerted from all directions, then the rock usually does not show foliation. There are two main types of metamorphism: Contact metamorphism—occurs when magma contacts a rock, changing it by extreme heat (Figure 4.14).

How would you describe foliation in metamorphic rocks?

Foliation in geology refers to repetitive layering in metamorphic rocks. Each layer can be as thin as a sheet of paper, or over a meter in thickness. … Rocks exhibiting foliation include the standard sequence formed by the prograde metamorphism of mudrocks; slate, phyllite, schist and gneiss.

What happens to the grain size of the minerals in rocks when the heat is increased?

Like heat, pressure increases with depth. … The heat and pressure together cause the rock to flow instead of break or fracture. The mineral grains become realigned. They flatten out and get longer.

What is shear stress in geology?

Shear stress is the stress component parallel to a given surface, such as a fault plane, that results from forces applied parallel to the surface or from remote forces transmitted through the surrounding rock.

How do geologists determine the stability conditions of minerals buried at great depths?

True or false: a rock becomes permanently deformed when even a small amount of stress is applied to it. If a rock is only subjected to heating and burial pressures during metamorphism (no differential stresses are applied), what may occur? What types of deformation and metamorphism may occur in extensional settings?

How does stress occur in rocks?

Compression: Stress which causes rock to squeeze or push against other rock. Tension: Stress which occurs when rock pulls apart or gets longer. Shear Stress: Stress which occurs when tectonic plates move past each other causing rock to twist or change shape.

Why do you think that the Micas flat minerals in these rocks are all parallel or nearly so to one another?

The figure to the left illustrated that micas (green in this drawing) will tend to grow with their flat sheets perpendicular to the maximum compressional stress (arrows). This growth results in all the micas being oriented parallel to each other, which produces the foliation.

Which type of pressure will result in the alignment of metamorphic minerals?

between 100 and 300 MPa
The metamorphic process usually occurs at pressures between 100 and 300 MPa, the depth at which these pressures occur depending on which type of rock is applying pressure.

A foliated metamorphic rock has foliation either because it contains inequant mineral crystals that are aligned parallel to one another, defining preferred mineral orientation, and/or because the rock has alternating dark-coloured and light-coloured layers.

What happens to a rock when it undergoes metamorphism?

Changes in Composition As rocks undergo metamorphism, the original minerals in a rock change into new minerals that are more stable in new pressure and temperature conditions.

How are metamorphic rocks formed quizlet?

Metamorphic rocks are formed by intense heat, intense pressure, or by the action of watery hot fluids (metamorphism). Any of the rock types in the rock cycle can be metamorphosed, or changed into a metamorphic rock (metamorphic rock can be metamorphosed again).

What are the two factors of metamorphism to form a metamorphic rock?

Temperature and pressure are important factors in determining the new minerals that form in a metamorphic rock.

What minerals are most common in detrital sedimentary rocks Why are these minerals so abundant?

Why are these minerals so abundant? Quartz and clay minerals are the chief constituents of detrital sedimentary rocks. Clay minerals are the most abundant product of chemical weathering. Quartz is an abundant sediment because it is very resistant to chemical weathering.

Which group of three minerals are the most common minerals in sedimentary rocks?

The three, most common, chemical cements in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone are silica (quartz), calcium carbonate (calcite), and the iron oxides.

Are sedimentary rocks evenly distributed throughout the world?

Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are all found in Earth’s crust. But these rock types are not evenly distributed. Most of Earth’s crust—95 percent of it—consists of igneous rock and metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock, which forms a thin covering on Earth’s surface, makes up only 5 percent of the crust.

How do minerals change during metamorphism?

Metamorphism occurs because some minerals are stable only under certain conditions of pressure and temperature. When pressure and temperature change, chemical reactions occur to cause the minerals in the rock to change to an assemblage that is stable at the new pressure and temperature conditions.

How does metamorphic rock change into another type of metamorphic rock?

Metamorphic rocks are formed by tremendous heat, great pressure, and chemical reactions. To change it into another type of metamorphic rock you have to reheat it and bury it deeper again beneath the Earth’s surface.

What two processes cause igneous rocks to change into metamorphic rocks?

Metamorphic rocks: form by recrystallization of either igneous or sedimentary rocks. This happens when the temperature, pressure or fluid environment change and a rock changes its form (e.g. limestone turns to marble). The range of temperatures for metamophism is 150C up to the melting temperature.

How do geologists use index minerals in metamorphic rocks?

How do Geologists use index minerals? Index minerals are used to describe the type of metamorphic environment they belong to. How are gneisses and migmatites related? Gneiss is heated and melted to where light bands are folded and formed of igneous or igneous looking rock while dark bands remain the same.

What do index minerals in metamorphic rocks tell a geologist?

An index mineral is used in geology to determine the degree of metamorphism a rock has experienced. … When an index mineral is found in a metamorphosed rock, it indicates the minimum pressure and temperature the protolith must have achieved in order for that mineral to form.

What is the importance of index minerals in metamorphic rocks?


how will minerals orient when a rock is put under shear stress?



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