what common household item is used in this video to demonstrate the ekman spiral?

What are two factors that are needed for the Ekman spiral to occur?

The Ekman spiral is caused by: the wind and the Coriolis effect.

What is the Ekman spiral quizlet?

Ekman spiral: Wind creates a surface current that spirals in a clockwise direction as depth decreases, flowing in the opposite direction of the wind at about 100m depth. ( spiral is in the opposite direction in the southern hemisphere)

What is true about the Ekman spiral?

An Ekman spiral (A) is a rotating column of water that forms when water moves at an angle to the wind direction due to the Coriolis Effect. The net effect of the rotating water (B) is movement at right angle to the wind direction. … The water turns to the left instead of right in the Southern Hemisphere.

What are the layers of water referred to in an Ekman spiral?

Ekman layer, a vertical region of the ocean affected by the movement of wind-driven surface waters. This layer, named for the Swedish oceanographer V. Walfrid Ekman, extends to a depth of about 100 metres (about 300 feet). … This phenomenon is called Ekman transport, and its effects are widely observed in the oceans.

What is the Ekman spiral caused by?

The Ekman spiral, named after Swedish scientist Vagn Walfrid Ekman (1874-1954) who first theorized it in 1902, is a consequence of the Coriolis effect. … As a result, each successively deeper layer of water moves more slowly to the right or left, creating a spiral effect.

What is the Ekman spiral explain why Ekman transport occurs and what role it plays in producing oceanic gyres in the surface waters of the subtropical oceans?

Ekman transport occurs when ocean surface waters are influenced by the friction force acting on them via the wind. As the wind blows it casts a friction force on the ocean surface that drags the upper 10-100m of the water column with it.

What is the caused of the Ekman spiral quizlet?

Ekman Spiral Is Caused By. Surface Ocean Currents. Salinity And Temperature.

What is true Ekman transport?

Ekman transport is to the right of the wind direction in the Northern Hemisphere. The Coriolis effect causes surface waters to move at an angle relative to the wind direction. … In the deeper layers of the Ekman spiral, water can move in a direction opposite of the wind direction.

What is the difference between the Ekman spiral and Ekman transport?

The impact of the Ekman Spiral is enhanced where geographic features create barriers to the movement of water. Ekman transport is the net motion of a fluid (seawater) as the result of a balance between the Coriolis effect and turbulent drag forces (within surface waters and geographic features (shoreline and seabed).

Where are Ekman layers found?

There are many regions where an Ekman layer is theoretically plausible; they include the bottom of the atmosphere, near the surface of the earth and ocean, the bottom of the ocean, near the sea floor and at the top of the ocean, near the air-water interface.

What is the Walker circulation cell quizlet?

What is the Walker Circulation Cell? It is the path that air takes as it moves from high to low pressure, and back to high pressure, in the South Pacific under normal conditions.

How does Ekman transport cause upwelling?

Coastal upwelling occurs where Ekman transport moves surface waters away from the coast; surface waters are replaced by water that wells up from below. Where Ekman transport moves surface waters toward the coast, the water piles up and sinks in the process known as downwelling.

What are Ekman and geostrophic balances?

Driven by the long-term average winds in the subtropical highs, Ekman transport causes surface waters to move toward the central region of a subtropical gyre. … The horizontal movement of surface water arising from a balance between the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis force is known as geostrophic flow.

What is Ekman boundary layer?

8.13.2.3. 1 Ekman boundary layers. Ekman layers are boundary layers in which there is a balance between the viscous force and the Coriolis acceleration. They are typically quite thin. For example, in the Taylor column experiment just described, the thickness of a laminar Ekman layer is of order that is, ≈ 1 mm.

What causes equatorial upwelling?

Upwelling is a result of winds and the rotation of the Earth. The Earth rotates on its axis from west to east. … The Coriolis effect also causes upwelling in the open ocean near the Equator. Trade winds at the Equator blow surface water both north and south, allowing upwelling of deeper water.

What is Ekman spiral in oceanography?

The Ekman spiral is a structure of currents or winds near a horizontal boundary in which the flow direction rotates as one moves away from the boundary. It derives its name from the Swedish oceanographer Vagn Walfrid Ekman.

Is the Ekman spiral a Geostrophic current?

The Ekman transport piles up water in the center of the gyre, making the water level higher in the gyre center than on the edges of the gyres. … This results in a clockwise current around the central “hill” called geostrophic flow , which moves in the same direction as the rotating gyre.

How are the Coriolis effect and the Ekman transport related?

The Ekman spiral is a consequence of the coriolis effect. When the surface water moves by the wind, they drag the deeper layers with them. Each layer of water is moved by friction from the shallower layer and each deeper layer moves more slowly than the layer above it. … This creates a spiral called the Ekman spiral.

What happens when Ekman transports converge?

Convergence results in downwelling of water out of the Ekman layer. … Equatorial upwelling due to Ekman transport results from the westward wind stress (trade winds). These cause northward Ekman transport north of the equator and southward Ekman transport south of the equator.

What is the Ekman spiral and what is its relationship to upwelling and downwelling?

As wind blows along a coastline, Ekman transport moves the surface layer in a direction 90o to the wind. … In any coastal upwelling location, if the winds reverse, surface water moves towards the shore and downwelling is the result. Upwelling can also occur due to geological features of the ocean floor.

What causes Western intensification quizlet?

salinity and gravity. Western intensification causes: a steeper slope of surface water in the western section of the gyre as compared to the eastern section of the gyre. very swift western boundary currents.

Which of the following happens during El Nino?

During an El Niño event, the surface waters in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean become significantly warmer than usual. … It also reduces the upwelling of cooler, nutrient-rich waters from the deep—shutting down or reversing ocean currents along the equator and along the west coast of South and Central America.

How is Ekman transport calculated?

At the ocean surface, uE=τwρ√2fKv and vE=−τwρ√2fKv (from Equations 7.9 and ref7. 6b}, that is, the Ekman velocity is at an angle of 45∘ to the right of the wind direction in the Northern Hemisphere (and to the left of the wind in the Southern Hemisphere) due to the Coriolis force.

How does the ocean water move?

Ocean water is constantly moving, and not only in the form of waves and tides. Ocean currents flow like vast rivers, sweeping along predictable paths. … Major surface ocean currents in the open ocean, however, are set in motion by the wind, which drags on the surface of the water as it blows.

What is the difference between western and eastern boundary currents?

To move the same volume of water through each side, western boundary currents are faster, deeper, and narrower than eastern boundary currents. … In the same way, western boundary currents are not only faster, but also deeper than eastern boundary currents, as they move the same volume through a narrower space.

What are the 5 circulation circles in the 3 main oceans called generic term )?

Ocean gyres are large system of circular ocean currents formed by global wind patterns and forces created by Earth’s rotation. The five major circulation patterns formed by the currents on this map are the world’s five major ocean gyres: North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Indian, North Pacific, and South Pacific.

What describes a theoretical direction of Ekman transport in the Southern Hemisphere?

What describes the theoretical direction of Ekman transport in the Southern Hemisphere? 90 degrees to the left of wind direction.

What is planetary boundary layer height?

The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the atmosphere, ranging anywhere between 100 and 2000 m above the surface of the ground.

Why the boundary layer is important in fluid flow analysis?

Engineers call this layer the boundary layer because it occurs on the boundary of the fluid. The details of the flow within the boundary layer are very important for many problems in aerodynamics, including wing stall, the skin friction drag on an object, and the heat transfer that occurs in high speed flight.

What is the Walker circulation cell What is the Walker circulation cell?

The Walker circulation, also known as the Walker cell, is a conceptual model of the air flow in the tropics in the lower atmosphere (troposphere). According to this model, parcels of air follow a closed circulation in the zonal and vertical directions.

What is the origin of the sediment that forms a beach and how do human activities disrupt the supply of that sediment?

What is the origin of the sediment that forms a beach and how do human activities disrupt the supply of that sediment? Sediment comes from waves, tides, and currents erode cliffs, wash away dunes, and transport sand to and from the beach. Identify some of the costs and benefits of coastal armor.

What is the relationship between Walker cell trade winds and El Nino and La Niña quizlet?

During El Nino what happens to the Walker Circulation: It weakens/ reverse causing the ocean surface to be warmer than average because less or no upwelling occurs in the eastern Pacific. During La Nina what happens to the Walker Circulation: It strengthens resulting in colder ocean temperatures due to more upwelling.

What is the Ekman spiral and what is its cause?

An Ekman spiral (A) is a rotating column of water that forms when water moves at an angle to the wind direction due to the Coriolis Effect. The net effect of the rotating water (B) is movement at right angle to the wind direction.

What are upwellings and Downwellings?


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