what is surface mining

What is the meaning of surface mining?

surface mining, method of extracting minerals near the surface of the Earth. The three most common types of surface mining are open-pit mining, strip mining, and quarrying. See also mining and coal mining.

What is surface mining process?

There are five main types of surface mining as detailed below.

  1. Strip mining.
  2. Open-pit mining.
  3. Mountaintop removal.
  4. Dredging.
  5. Highwall mining.
  6. Human health.
  7. Environmental impact.

What is surface mining answer?

Surface mining is a form of mining in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed. It is the other way of underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left behind, and the required mineral deposits are removed through shafts or tunnels.

Why is surface mining bad?

Surface mining (another name for “strip mining”) can severely erode the soil or reduce its fertility; pollute waters or drain underground water reserves; scar or altar the landscape; damage roads, homes, and other structures; and destroy wildlife.

What are the 4 types of surface mining?

There are five recognized types of surface mining, each with specific variations depending on the minerals being extracted. These include strip mining, open-pit mining, mountaintop removal, dredging and highwall mining.

What are the 4 types of mining?

There are four main mining methods: underground, open surface (pit), placer, and in-situ mining.

What is the difference between surface mining and underground mining?

Surface mining is suitable for large, low-grade ore deposits which occur below a thin layer of rock or sand. Underground mining is used for small, high-grade deposits covered with a thick soil or rock above the ore.

What are the advantages of surface mining?

Surface mines offer advantages and disadvantages when compared to underground mining. Amongst the advantages are that it is cheaper, can recover more of the resource (usually up to 100% within the mining excavation), is safer and can use larger-scale mining equipment offering higher production rates.

What types of pollution can surface mining cause?

The effects can result in erosion, sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, or the contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water by the chemicals emitted from mining processes.

What does underground mining mine?

Australia’s large and diverse local underground mining industry produces a significant proportion of its coal, gold, nickel, copper, zinc, lead, tin, uranium and diamond exports.

What is strip surface mining?

strip mining, removal of soil and rock (overburden) above a layer or seam (particularly coal), followed by the removal of the exposed mineral. … Such spoil areas are now routinely reclaimed and permanent vegetation reestablished as an integral part of surface-mining operations.

What is underground mining used for?

Underground hard-rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate “hard” minerals, usually those containing metals, such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin, and lead. It also involves the same techniques used to excavate ores of gems, such as diamonds and rubies.

Which type of mining is least harmful to the environment?

Sub-Surface mining is likely the least harmful to the environment.

How does surface mining affect streams?

However, even with current regulations, surface mining can affect fish and aquatic resources through erosion and sedimentation, dewatering of wetlands, diverting and channelizing streams, and contaminating surface water and aquifers with toxic chemicals.

Does Surface Mining cause air pollution?

Hundreds of tons of rock are unearthed, moved, and crushed in mining operations significantly increasing the amount of dust and particulates in the air. … This air pollution can directly affect human health.

What are types of mining Class 8?

There are two main methods of mining, viz. open-cast mining and shaft mining. Open Cast Mining: When minerals are taken out by removing the surface layer, the process is called open-cast mining. Minerals which lie at shallow depths are extracted by this process.

How ore minerals are found in surface mining?

Surface mining allows extraction of ores that are close to Earth’s surface. Overlying rock is blasted and the rock that contains the valuable minerals is placed in a truck and taken to a refinery. As pictured in Figure below, surface mining includes open-pit mining and mountaintop removal.

Which are the two main techniques of mining?

Primarily, there are two types of mining methods being used for the extraction of minerals and ores – surface/opencast mining and underground mining.

What are 3 mining methods?

Open-pit, underwater, and underground mining. These are the three main methods of mining we use to extract our products from the ground.

What are six types of mining?

Here are the different types of mining for resources like minerals, water, and fossil fuels.

  • Strip Mining.
  • Open Pit Mining.
  • Mountaintop Removal.
  • Dredging.
  • Highwall Mining.

What are the 3 types of mining methods?

Mining Methods

  • Open Cut. Open cut (or open pit) mining involves digging and/or drilling and blasting to remove the resource or ore for processing. …
  • Dredge mining. …
  • Shaft. …
  • Decline or tunnel. …
  • Block cave. …
  • Continuous Mining. …
  • Longwall Mining. …
  • Coal Seam Gas (CSG)

What is the difference between surface mining and mining?

In surface mining, the topsoil and bedrock is removed to access the ore; all done from the surface. In underground mining, the bedrock is kept intact, and tunnels are used to access the ore from below.

Why is surface mining cheaper than underground mining?

Open-pit mining occurs on surface and is generally the cheapest way to extract ore. This is because rock doesn’t have to be moved far up hill against gravity, equipment used can be larger than underground, and it doesn’t require more expensive features like ventilation, communications, etc.

Why is surface mining more harmful than underground mining?

In any system of mining there is potential environmental risks introduced. Surface mining requires large areas of land to be temporarily disturbed. This raises a number of environmental challenges, including soil erosion, dust, noise and water pollution, and impacts on local biodiversity.

What are advantages and disadvantages of mining?

Top 10 Mining Pros & Cons – Summary List

Mining Pros Mining Cons
Higher tax income for governments Habitat destruction
Mining is crucial for technological progress Biodiversity loss
Mining is a mature technology Endangerment of species
Processes around mining are quite efficient Mining can lead to ecological imbalance

Which type of mining is not a form of surface mining?

Subsurface mining removes coal and various metal ores that are too deep to be extracted by surface mining. It does not disturb the land as much as surface mining, produces less waste material, but leaves much of the resource in the ground and is more dangerous and expensive. What is room-and-pillar mining?

How are mining ores surface and underground?

Underground mining is used to recover ores that are deeper into Earth’s surface. Miners blast and tunnel into rock to gain access to the ores. An underground ore deposit can be approached from above, below, or sideways. … Fresh air and lights must also be brought into the tunnels for the miners.

How is mining affecting the environment?

Across the world, mining contributes to erosion, sinkholes, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, significant use of water resources, dammed rivers and ponded waters, wastewater disposal issues, acid mine drainage and contamination of soil, ground and surface water, all of which can lead to health issues in local …

How does digging affect the environment?

How does digging affect the environment? Digging is performed by enormous (fuel burning) machines which alter the face of the landscape. How does dumping waste affect the environment? Dumping waste is now legal, and the toxins pollute and bury headwater streams.

How does mining affect human health?

The negative consequences of mining for human health include respiratory complications such as pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, and silicosis caused by inhaling fine particles from the large amounts of dust generated by mining activities such as blasting and drilling.

Why is underground mining good?

The major advantages of underground mining over open pit mining are lessened environmental impacts, greater selectivity, and reduced exposure to weather. Much less land surface is necessary for the operation of an underground mine than for an open pit mine of the same production size.

What are the three types of underground mining?

Underground methods are traditionally broken into three classes: unsupported, supported, and caving methods. These classes reflect the competency of the orebody and host rock more than anything else.

How underground mining is done?


what is surface mining



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