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CLASSIFICATION The classification of rocks is based on two criteria, TEXTURE and COMPOSITION. The texture has to do with the sizes and shapes of mineral grains and other constituents in a rock, and how these sizes and shapes relate to each other. Such factors are controlled by the process which formed the rock.
Examples include sillimanite, kyanite, staurolite, andalusite, and some garnet. Other minerals, such as olivines, pyroxenes, hornblende, micas, feldspars, and quartz, may be found in metamorphic rocks, but are not necessarily the result of the process of metamorphism.
The feldspar-group, a very complex mixture of oxygen, silicon, aluminum and trace elements like sodium, potassium, calcium and more exotic elements like barium, are by far the most common minerals, making up almost 58% of all to a geologist accessible rocks, especially magmatic and metamorphic ones.
Gypsum is an evaporite mineral most commonly found in layered sedimentary deposits in association with halite, anhydrite, sulfur, calcite, and dolomite. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is very similar to Anhydrite (CaSO4). The chemical difference is that gypsum contains two waters and anhydrite is without water.
The minerals in igneous rocks are formed from the magma after the cristallisation temperature is reached. In metamorphic rocks, minerals are altered or recrystallised from the existing rock minerals because of the effect of heat and temperature.
Abiotic assets are non-living while biotic assets are living. Soils, rocks and minerals are abiotic.
Chemistry: 12. Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
|Compound||Symbol||Elements in the compound (and state at room temp)|
|Water||H2O||Hydrogen (gas) oxygen (gas)|
|Carbon dioxide||CO2||Carbon (solid) oxygen (gas)|
|Magnesium oxide||MgO||Magnesium (solid) oxygen (gas)|
|Iron sulphide||FeS||Iron (solid) Sulphur (solid)|
The composition of a mineral can be expressed as a CHEMICAL FORMULA, which simply gives the proportions of the different elements and groups of elements in the mineral. The latter notion (groups of elements) comes into play for those minerals which have a restricted range of composition.
Minerals have specific chemical compositions and describable structures. … If a rock is slowly heated to 1200°C, the first minerals to melt would be quartz and potassium feldspar.
Feldspars are a group of rock-forming aluminium tectosilicate minerals, containing sodium, calcium, potassium or barium.
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