where are atp and nadph made

The chloroplast adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase is located in the thylakoid membrane and synthesizes ATP from adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate at the expense of the electrochemical proton gradient formed by light-dependent electron flow.

Where are mitochondria located?

Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm).

Where does ATP and NADPH get created quizlet?

After the energy is released, the “empty” energy carriers return to the light-dependent reaction to obtain more energy. There is not much actual movement involved. Both ATP and NADPH are produced in the stroma where they are also used and reconverted into ADP, Pi, and NADP+.

How many ATP and NADPH are made in the light reactions?

The nine molecules of ATP and six molecules of NADPH come from the light reactions.

How is NADPH formed?

Hydrogen ions are transported with the electrons along the chain of reactions. In photosystem I, the electrons are energized, and the energy is stored in molecules of NADP+. During these reactions, the NADP+ molecules are reduced by the addition of electrons. A hydrogen ion is added to NADP+ to form NADPH.

How and where is ATP made in a eukaryotic cell?

How and where is ATP made in a eukaryotic cell? ATP can be made by direct phosphorylation of ADP in the cytoplasm, and by an enzyme complex that uses the energy from a proton gradient to drive ATP synthesis in the mitochondria. It can also be made in other locations in the cell, depending on the cell type.

Where do the 38 ATP come from?

Biology textbooks often state that 38 ATP molecules can be made per oxidized glucose molecule during cellular respiration (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the Krebs cycle, and about 34 from the electron transport system).

Where is ATP synthase located in non photosynthetic eukaryotes?

The ATP synthase is a mitochondrial enzyme localized in the inner membrane, where it catalyzes the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate, driven by a flux of protons across a gradient generated by electron transfer from the proton chemically positive to the negative side.

Can ATP be synthesized?

Abstract. The majority of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis is usually associated with respiratory and photosynthetic processes that are catalyzed by complex redox enzyme systems embedded in ion-impermeable lipid membranes.

How many ATP is produced in photosynthesis?

Glucose combines with oxygen (oxidation), forming carbon dioxide, water and 38 molecules of ATP.

How is ATP synthesized in the electron transport chain?

The proton gradient produced by proton pumping during the electron transport chain is used to synthesize ATP. Protons flow down their concentration gradient into the matrix through the membrane protein ATP synthase, causing it to spin (like a water wheel) and catalyze conversion of ADP to ATP.

What is ATP Class 11th?

ATP – Adenosine triphosphate is called the energy currency of the cell. It is the organic compound composed of the phosphate groups, adenine, and the sugar ribose. These molecules provide energy for various biochemical processes in the body. Therefore, it is called “Energy Currency of the Cell”.

What is the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis?

The Calvin cycle is a part of photosynthesis, the process plants and other autotrophs use to create nutrients from sunlight and carbon dioxide. The Calvin cycle is a process that plants and algae use to turn carbon dioxide from the air into sugar, the food autotrophs need to grow. …

What is Kranz anatomy?

Kranz anatomy is a unique structure observed in C4 plants. In these plants, the mesophyll cells cluster around the bundle-sheath cell in a wreath formation (Kranz means ‘wreath or ring). … This entire structure is densely packed and plays a major role in C4 photosynthesis.

Where is NADPH produced quizlet?

NADPH is produced from the last enzyme on the end of the transport chain (from photosystem I), binding them to NAD+ and from the release of H+ ions through the ATP synthase, at the end of chemiosmosis. The synthase also creates ATP.

Where does the NADPH come from in the Calvin cycle?


where are atp and nadph made



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