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S waves cannot pass through the liquid outer core, but P waves can. The waves are refracted as they travel through the Earth due to a change in density of the medium. When the waves cross the boundary between two different layers, there is a sudden change in direction due to refraction. …
P-waves are compression waves that apply a force in the direction of propagation. … On the other hand, S-waves are shear waves, which means that the motion of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. The energy is thus less easily transmitted through the medium, and S-waves are slower.
From 200-400 km depth, the velocity of S-waves gradually increases again until reaching the 400 km transition zone where the S-wave velocity increases rapidly. … Below the 670 km transition zone, S-wave and P-wave velocity increase in a less dramatic manner until reaching the mantle-core boundary at ~2900 km depth.
This graph shows the relationship between time and distance traveled by S- and P-waves. What does this graph demonstrate about the velocity of both waves as they travel away from the earthquake focus? The velocity of each wave increases with distance from the focus.
What does the S wave shadow zone tell us? S-waves cannot move through liquid, and they were blocked from reaching the other side of earth by the outer crust, so the outer crust must be liquid.
A tsunami is a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbances. As a tsunami nears the coastline, it may rise to several feet, and can cause great loss of life and property damage when it comes ashore. … A tsunami can occur at any time.
When rocks deform in a ductile manner, instead of fracturing to form faults or joints, they may bend or fold, and the resulting structures are called folds. … Because the strain rate is low and/or the temperature is high, rocks that we normally consider brittle can behave in a ductile manner resulting in such folds.
Why do ships at sea tend not to notice tsunamis? -Tsunamis in deep water have small wave height and long wavelength. … –In shallow water, the energy of the tsunami must be contained within a larger water column. -In shallow water, the energy of the tsunami must be contained within a smaller water column.
The foot wall is the block of rock that lies under the fault. The hanging wall is the block of rock that sits over the fault. In the normal fault, the hanging wall lies under the fault and the footwall sits on top the fault.
At ~2,900 km, the S wave velocity falls to 0. … S waves can’t travel through liquids, and this depth is where the liquid outer core exists.
Unlike P waves, S waves don’t move straight through the Earth. They only travel through solid material, and so are stopped at the liquid layer in the Earth’s core.
The velocity of s waves going through the asthenosphere decreases, which tells us that peridotite contains a few percent partial melt, but not enough to stop s waves.
What happens P waves are refracted when they reach the outer core? P waves can travel through a liquid and a solid, and are refracted when they enter a new substance such as the outer core. A build up of stress in Earth’s crust do to mantle convection.
S-waves cannot travel through liquids or gases. Because the earth’s mantle becomes more rigid as its depth below the asthenosphere increases, S-waves travel faster as they go deeper in the mantle.